Dissociative Adsorption

This tutorials moves on from the very basic single atom adsorption to the dissociative adsorption of a diatomic molecule of type B2:

\[B_2 + 2^* \longleftrightarrow B^* + B^*\]

With respect to the case of the single atom adsorption the main changes are done in the definition of the events. They are presented together with some comparison to a mean-field model. The entire tutorial is shown in test.py and the references to the other modules mentioned therein.

Define events

As before, defined event-types are stored in user_events.py. For each possible type of event, a class is derived from NeighborKMC.base.events.EventBase. In this case, we again need to define two different events, the adsorption of species B2, and correspondingly the desorption.

First we import the necessary functions, classes, and constants:

from base.events import EventBase

Now we derive a class to contain the event:

class B2AdsEvent(EventBase):
    def __init__(self, params):
        EventBase.__init__(self, params)

The constructor __init__(self,params) attaches relevant parameters to the object. We need a function possible(self,system, site, other_site) that returns True if the event is possible on the current site-pair. For the dessoziate adsorption, both neighboring sites have to be empty. Thus now the other_site becomes important.

def possible(self, system, site, other_site):
    # If site is uncovered
    if (system.sites[site].covered == 0 and system.sites[other_site] == 0):
        return True
        return False

Now we also need to define a function get_rate(self, system, i_site, other_site) that returns the rate constant. To keep this as simple as possible, the rate constant is chosen to be \(R=1\).

def get_rate(self, system, i_site, other_site):
    R = 1.
    return R

Each event requires a method do_event(self,system, site, other_site) to perform modifications to the site-occupations when fired:

def do_event(self, system, site, other_site):
    system.sites[site].covered = 1
    system.sites[other_site].covered = 1

In this case, upon adsorption the site and also the other_site is covered with the species B, represented by the number 1 within the code.

To take care of the correct time evolution in MonteCoffee we introduce an additional block which returns if either neighboring sites are involved or not. Here the neighboring sites are involved, thus we return True.

def get_involve_other(self):
    return True

Finally, the events are stored in the main simulation file, in a list:

events = [B2AdsEvent, B2DesEvent]

Thus to run a kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of dissoiative adsorption, only the user_event.py file has to be changed with respect to the single atom adsorption, and the imported events updated in test.py.

Analyze results

To compare with the mean-field model we solve the following coupled differential equations for the surface coverages \({\theta_i}\):

\[\begin{split}\frac{d\theta_B}{dt} & = k^{+}\theta_*^2 - k^-\theta_B^2 \\ \theta_* & = 1 - \theta_B\end{split}\]

with \(k^{+,-}\), being the rate of the forth and back reaction respectively. Comparing the mean-field results with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations is only in this very simple cases, which do not include any adsorbate-adsorbate interactions or diffusion limitations possible. Also one has to account in the mean-field model for the coordination number of the surface site over which the reaction takes place. Using the (100) surface, we have 4 possible pairs of neighbouring sites at which the adsorption can happen. In consequence, \(k^{+,-}\) has to be multiplied by 4. In the following image, the time evolution for both models is shown for various system sizes in the case of the kinetic Monte Carlo simulation.


As for the single atom adsorption, both models agree and an increase in surface size reduces the variations of the kinetic Monte Carlo simulation.