# Quick start¶

This tutorial provides a minimal working example of how to run MonteCoffee. For simplicity this example puts all definitions in one file. This structure is different from the following tutorials.

For this very first, simple example, all free energy barriers are assumed constant. Two different events are implemented, and neighbors are calculated from inter-atomic distances in an ASE.Atoms object. For simplicity, this guide shows how to setup a simulation in a single python script. In principle it is similar to the second tutorial on diatomic adsorption and desorption (see Dissociative Adsorption).

Step 1. Implement the two event-types

In this step we import the template class NeighborKMC.base.events.EventBase, and derive two classes from this to enable two different types of reactions. All defined events must implement four methods:

The first event class is an adsorption, that is possible if the pair of neighbor sites is empty. Each eventclass can be given a name which is only used in the output. The adsorption class has a rate-constant that is linearly dependent on the pressure, and if executed, it covers the sites with species 1:

from base.events import EventBase

def __init__(self, params):

def possible(self, system, site, other_site):

if system.sites[site].covered == 0 and system.sites[other_site].covered == 0:
return True
else:
return False

def get_rate(self, system, site, other_site):
R = 1. * self.params["pA"]
return R

def do_event(self, system, site, other_site):
# Cover the two sites with species 1
system.sites[site].covered = 1
system.sites[other_site].covered = 1

def get_involve_other(self):
return True


Now we define the reverse desorption-event with a constant rate:

class Desorption(EventBase):

def __init__(self, params):
EventBase.__init__(self, params, name='Desorption')

def possible(self, system, site, other_site):

if system.sites[site].covered == 1 and system.sites[other_site].covered == 1:
return True
else:
return False

def get_rate(self, system, site, other_site):
R = 1.
return R

def do_event(self, system, site, other_site):
# empty the sites:
system.sites[site].covered = 0
system.sites[other_site].covered = 0

def get_involve_other(self):
return True


Now we will store references to the classes in a list:

events = [Adsorption, Desorption]


How to accelerate the kMC simulations is described in the tutorial on Accelerating kMC and not used in this simplest case.

Step 2. Define sites

In this step, the sites are defined from an ASE.Atoms object. We create one site for each atom in a 10x10 fcc(111) surface, all with the same site-type stype=0 and without any covering species covered=0:

from ase.build import fcc111
from base.sites import SiteBase

a0 = 4.00  # Lattice Parameter (not related to DFT!)
atoms = fcc111("Pt", size=(10, 10, 1), a=a0)
sites = []
# Define a site for each atom that is empty with no pre-defined neighbors:
for i in range(len(atoms)):
sites.append(SiteBase(stype=0, covered=0, ind=i))


Now we have a list of empty sites, which are used to instantiate a system.

Step 3. Instantiate system and neighborlists

Here, the system is created and the sites are connected by calculating a neighborlist. In this example we assign neighbors within one nearest-neighbor distance:

import numpy as np
from base.system import SystemBase

p = SystemBase(atoms=atoms, sites=sites)
Ncutoff = a0 / np.sqrt(2.) + 0.05  # Nearest neighbor cutoff

for i, s in enumerate(sites):
for j, sother in enumerate(sites):
dcur = atoms.get_distance(s.ind, sother.ind, mic=True)
if dcur < Ncutoff and j != i:
s.neighbors.append(j)


mic=True uses periodic boundary conditions to imply an infinite surface.

Step 4. Instantiate a NeighborKMC object and run

Now we are ready to instantiate a NeighborKMC.NeighborKMCBase object, which is connecting the ingredients created in the previous step. The main part of the kinetic Monte Carlo procedure is in the NeighborKMC.NeighborKMCBase, but some details and logging should be defined by the user. That is done here in the class: simple_NKMC.

from base.logging import Log
from base.kmc import NeighborKMCBase

class simple_NKMC(NeighborKMCBase):

# First we initialize the kMC simulation and load the parameters
def __init__(self, system, tend, parameters={}, events=[]):
self.events = [ev(parameters) for ev in events]
NeighborKMCBase.__init__(self, system=system,
tend=tend, parameters=parameters)

# We also define a run_kmc, which runs the actual kMC simulation. Also the logging is defined here.
def run_kmc(self):
logparams = {}
logparams.update(self.parameters)
logparams.update({"tend": self.tend,
"Nsites": self.system.Nsites,
"Number of events": len(self.events),
"Number of site-types (stypes)": len(list(set([m.stype for m in self. system.sites])))
})
log = Log(logparams)

stepN_CNT = 0  # Parameter to count LogSteps threshold
stepNMC = 0    # Parameter to count the number of executed kMC steps

while self.t < self.tend:
self.frm_step()         # Execute a kMC step

if stepN_CNT >= self.LogSteps:       # Only for Logging purposes
print("Time : ", self.t, "\t Covs :", self.system.get_coverages(self.Nspecies))
log.dump_point(stepNMC, self.t, self.evs_exec)
stepN_CNT = 0

stepN_CNT += 1
stepNMC += 1


So now after defining the simple_NKMC object, the parameters can be loaded:

parameters = {"pA": 10., "Name": "Quickstart simulation"}
sim = simple_NKMC(system=p,
tend=10.0, # end after 10.s.
parameters=parameters, # parameters for event rate-constants.
events=events) # the list of events


And finally, we can now run the simulation by invoking:

sim.run_kmc()


Then it is just to have a cup of coffee and wait.

Afterthoughts

While this example shows how simple it can be to run a simulation, in all following tutorials and examples the details of the simulations are stored in so-called user-files:

• user_kmc.py can be used to customize the kMC routine, especially run_kmc().
• user_events.py can be used to store the event-types.
• user_energy.py can be used to store functions for obtaining energies used to calculate event rate constants.
• user_entropy.py can be used to store entropy calculation functions.
• user_constants.py can be used to store global and physical constants.